Saturday, May 23, 2020

Physiological And Behavioral Effects Of Early Life Stress...

TITLE Meaghan Ferguson Columbia University The physiological and behavioral effects of early life stress (ELS) on the developing and adult brain are a subject of great interest in the field of neuroscience today. The ability to delineate the mechanisms and structures that are affected during postnatal exposure to chronic stress has the potential to provide invaluable insight into the development of a multitude of neuropsychiatric disorders. While we have come to understand a few of the mechanisms involved in many of these illnesses – such as the significance of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) neurotransmitter in many depression cases – the complex nature of these disorders and our ability to effectively treat them remains elusive. Such an understanding of how the brain adapts and differentially develops as a result of chronic stress, particularly in early life, may also be able to broaden our understanding of the way in which the brain codes and responds to a variety of emotional triggers. Due to i ts bi-directional connections to limbic structures, as well as the large number of glucocorticoid receptors present within its pyramidal cells, the hippocampus (HC) is the main region of interest when considering stress genotype and phenotype. An enormous variety of proteins expressed within this highly significant structure have been the focus of modern research activities – including various cytokines, cell adhesion moleculesShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Traumatic Events On Infants And Young Children1320 Words   |  6 Pageschildren has been passed over when in reality early childhood is the stage when a child is most vulnerable to the effects of trauma (Perry et. al., 1995). There are numerous interventions for early childhood trauma that focus on the child and the child’s primary caregiver. I wanted to design an intervention that will be able to go beyond the home environment of the child and into the school environment. Teacher can become secondary caregivers in a child’s life. They can also spend a significant amountRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Therapy717 Words   |  3 Pagesare currently used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder are cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and relaxation training. As stated by Wicks-Nelson and Israel, CBT is â€Å"an approach to treatment that is based on a theoretical perspective that considers behavioral events, cognitive processes, and their interactions† (p. 412). According to Wicks-Nelson and Israel (2015), CBT is a 16-week program that consists of a variety of behavioral and cognitive-behavioral procedures. This is broken up into two segmentsRead MoreThe Effects Of Stress On Infants And Young Children1711 Words   |  7 Pagesenvironment shapes us as individuals and one of the ways our environment shapes us is through stress, either experienced directly or indirectly. Stress is a complex physiobiological response that can have enduring biological, emotional, and behavioral consequences (Lupien et al, 2009). A fetus is sensitive to hormonal and other physiological indicators of stress within the womb and exposure to stress carries on after conception and continues to affect emotional and cognitive functioning of infantsRead MoreKhaled Hosseinis The Kite Runner1741 Words   |  7 Pageson the physiological and psychological needs of each of the characters Motivation: Biological, Physiological, Environmental (3rd Edition). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Deckers, L. (2010) notes that psychological needs, do not have any material exitence and are mental or psychological in nature, in some cases, psychological needs are ssumed to emerge in to consciousness from physiological needs. Whereas physiological needs, is responsible for pushing and organsim into action, physiological needsRead MoreEssay on The Breakdown of Mental Health and Stability1611 Wo rds   |  7 Pagesmuch progress was made in the field of science in terms of understanding the functions of the human brain and some of its behavior. It seems that as each new day passes, something new is discovered about the brain, whether it be a new mental or physiological brain condition, or merely a link and clue to one of the vast number of questions the world has considering the human brain and behavior. These discoveries and answers are becoming more and more important and imperative due to the fact that theRead MoreAmerican Psychological Association Defines Traumatic Event989 Words   |  4 Pagesothers†(American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Childhood trauma is the experience of traumatic event or events which creates a substantial and long term damage to the mental and physical growth and development of a child(National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2013). National prevalence of childhood trauma indicates trauma is a frequent occurrence in which majority of A mericas have witnessed or experienced a single or multiple traumatic events before adulthood. A 2013 study by National Survey ofRead MoreMindfulness Meditation On The Classroom Essay962 Words   |  4 Pagesschool. Additionally, the over-accumulation of toxic stress, either due to the pressures of schools or environmental (i.e., difficult exams, poverty, household dysfunction, etc.), can have negative and detrimental effects during childhood, as well as adulthood (Bucci et al., 2016). Pre-adolescence is a crucial stage in a child’s life because it is during this stage that kids can learn the coping mechanism that can prevent complications later on in life (Britton et al., 2014). Some children and adolescentsRead MoreThe Effects Of Stress On A Developing Child1662 Words   |  7 Pages The Impact of Stress on a Developing Child Name Course Institution Instructor Date Eiland, L., Romeo, R. D. (2013). Stress and the developing adolescent brain. Neuroscience, 249, 162-171. The adolescent phase is characterized by diverse and dynamic physiological and psychosocial changes. One of the most integral changes, as elicited by the authors, is the response to stressors. With specific regard to this stage, the author denotes that the stage is characterized by major shifts in HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal)Read MoreThe Long Term Effects Of Childhood Abuse1562 Words   |  7 Pagesmoving throughout life. Individuals who haven’t be exposed to high doses of stress and trauma are ready to go into fight or flight at any moment, but when this system is started over and over again, it goes from being life saving to health damaging that’s when the individuals stress response is overworked and compromised which effects the brains structure, constantly increases ones heart rate, heightens blood pressure, and more. Research has been done for years on the long-term effects of childhood abuseRead More The Understanding of Behavior and the Brain Essay1195 Words   |  5 Pagesbiological mechanisms. A recent article in Newsweek comments on how those in the field of psychology and neuroscience are beginning to stress the fact that certain brain mechanisms account for mental illnesses and particular behaviors. Doctors seem to blame their patients peculiarities on a biologically based mental illness, rather then seeing them as individual responses to lifes circumstances (Begley 1998). It then becomes more common to prescribe drugs to alleviate the symptoms rather than understanding

Monday, May 18, 2020

Lord of the Flies - the Beast - 1347 Words

THE BEAST Throughout the novel Lord Of The Flies, the boys on the island are constantly faced with various fears. However there is nothing on the island which they fear more than the beast. In Lord Of The Flies, the theme of the beast is extremely important. The beast represents the way in which man will try to convince himself that there is no evil inside of him by making someone or something else seem to be the cause for the evil. There are many examples of evidence to support this throughout the book, but first it is necessary to outline the rise of the beast and the evil within the boys. Talk of a dangerous presence emerged on the very first day on the island, when a little boy with a mulberry-coloured birthmark on his†¦show more content†¦It must be noted that this is a subconscious search; none of the boys, with the exception of Simon, had realised that the evil came from within them. Moreover, it was dark when the dead pilot was discovered, therefore he was not se en as a man anyway. However, even if it had been light, he still would have been seen as the beast. When the search party, formed to confirm the existence of a beast, discovered the dead pilot, it was also dark, and this unfortunately made him seem to be a giant ape, thereby confirming the boys worst fears. The Lord of the Flies represents Beelzebub, a manifestation of Satan. It is this manifestation, in the form of a pigs head on a stake, which appeared to speak to Simon in the forest, while he was enduring one of his epileptic fits. Golding uses this to confirm to the reader Simons assertion that the evil on the island came from within the boys. Simon then climbed the mountain and discovered the truth about the dead pilot. Unfortunately, it was at this point where the evil truly emerged among all of the boys and Simon was mistaken for the beast in disguise and brutally murdered in a frenzy of insane chanting before he could tell them. This is a very significant turning poin t in the novel because it now seems as if all sense of morals and civilized values have been discarded by the boys, who have allowed evil to take control of their minds. Following Simons death it becomesShow MoreRelatedThe Beast In Lord Of The Flies1587 Words   |  7 Pageswill discuss the growing importance of the beast in William Golding’s award winning novel: Lord Of The Flies. Throughout history, beasts have been portrayed in many different ways, from grizzly bears, alligators, and even people. A lot of beasts have been created as scary looking, vicious animals, who play the role of villains in stories. Some beasts however, are generous animals who capture the hearts of princesses, such as the classic Beauty And The Beast. In Chapter One, the choir makes a firstRead MoreThe Beast That Burned Lord Of The Flies Analysis721 Words   |  3 PagesThe Beast that Burned In William Golding’s striking novel, Lord of the Flies, Golding explains human descent through the beast and the burning fire. The beast is a pressing topic that follows the boys throughout the novel. The boys attempt across the novel to discover what sort of the creature the beast is and destroy it. But what is the beast? Is it a terrible monster? No, the beast is the savagery that exists inside the boys. One of the first signs that Golding conveys that the beast lives insideRead MoreLord Of The Flies The Beast Character Analysis721 Words   |  3 PagesIn Lord of the Flies, Jack uses the beast to gain power on the island. In Lord of the Flies, a novel about the inner-workings of civilization, the distribution of power is something that is discussed multiple times. The person or people who are given power defines all of the components of a civilization (economy, government, social structure, etc.) When all of the boys in Lord of the Flies crash onto the island, the fight for power is initiated almost immediately. Ralph, who has all the characteristicsRead MoreThe Rise of the Beast in Lord of the Flies Essay2349 Words   |  10 PagesExplain the emergence and rise of the beast in Lord of the flies by William Golding: Introduction. (1911 - 1993) Golding wrote Lord of the Flies shortly after learning of the horrors of World War II and the Holocaust. Here is some information about him. He was born in 1911 at Saint Columb Minor in Cornwall, England, Sir William Gerald Golding was educated at the Marlborough Grammar School, where his father taught, and later at Brasenose College, Oxford. Although educated to be a scientistRead MoreLord of the Flies: The Beast Within Us All878 Words   |  4 Pageseven the best of people can be bitter by their own nature. In the novel, Lord of the Flies, William Golding removes the restraints of society to prove that it is human nature to live primitively and that evil lies within all of us. The sanctions of society begin to deteriorate due to the loss of communication, Jack’s obsession with hunting, and the inhumane nature of Jack and his â€Å"tribe†. In the novel, Lord of the Flies, the civilization weakens due to a meeting breaking down to complete chaosRead More Importance of The Beast in Lord of The Flies by William Golding1858 Words   |  8 PagesImportance of The Beast in Lord of The Flies by William Golding All the way throughout the book, of ‘Lord of the Flies’ there is one main, big theme; the beast. It was first introduced by a small boy who was described as ‘a shrimp of a boy, about six years old, and on one side of his face was blotted out by a mulberry-coloured birthmark.’ The boy with the mulberry-coloured birthmark said that it was ‘a snake-thing, ever so big.’ By describing the beast as a ‘snake-thing’ makes it soundRead MoreThe Inner Human Beast in Lord of the Flies by William Golding696 Words   |  3 PagesIn Lord of the Flies, William Golding uses symbolism and parables to illustrate and define the human inner beast. There are some main ideas that William Golding sets forth in Lord of the Flies. These main ideas are impulses of mankind and they exist within all human beings in the world. The author talks about how mankind and society gives us rules and duties. Like to act peacefully, have moral standards, and how to accept others and their views. The story can be told as if it were civilization versusRead MoreInner Evil in Lord of the Flies by William Golding Essay620 Words   |  3 PagesInner Evil Throughout the novel Lord Of The Flies, the boys on the island are continuously faced with numerous fears. Subsequently there is nothing on the island which they fear more than the beast. The beast is not a tangible object that can be killed or destroyed by conventional means, but an idea symbolizing the primal savage instincts within all people. Its Golding’s intention to illustrate the innate evil inside man through his view of human nature, the actions of the Jack and his tribe,Read MoreThe Immortality Of Man s Heart1579 Words   |  7 Pagesstop themselves from doing evil. In Lord of the Flies by William Golding a group of young, British schoolboys become deserted on a mysterious island after their plane crashes down at a time of war. As they fight for survival, they are also constantly conflicted by their own inner beings. One of Golding’s most significant themes throughout the book is that man is essentially corrupt and animalistic. In his book, he uses hunting , the beast, and the Lord of the Flies to symbolize the savagery that livesRead MoreWilliam Goldings Lord of the Flies Essay1255 Words   |  6 PagesThe Beast that Kills Slowly Savagery is the condition of being primitive, uncivilized or the quality of being fierce or cruel (Google). It is something that comes easy to everyone at certain times in our life. People will learn it is harder to be good than bad. Being bad comes natural to everyone; people like the thrill of taking a chance. People are trained to be civil and polite from the time one grows up and it is not that hard because of the society everyone lives in. What would happen if the

Monday, May 11, 2020

The War Of The European Powers - 1605 Words

Over the years America has gotten involved with many other countries. Countries where we have spread our beliefs and democracy. In doing so we have created many allies as well as enemies. Many people tend to disagree on when and where we get involved with foreign affairs. The US was very politically isolated from the world through the 19th century and into the 20th. This isolationist view of the 19th century can be seen through 1823 Monroe doctrine, In the wars of the European powers, in matters relating to themselves, we have never taken part, nor does it comport with our policy, so to do. Germany’s submarine warfare and Zimmerman’s note shifted our view and got us involved in WWI. (â€Å"†) Today USA is a world super power and not nearly as isolated as we used to be. A foreign issue becomes an American issue when it threatens our security. This can be seen through the Cold War, global wars, cyber warfare, and terrorism. All of these issues show w hen we should get involved in the past and present. Firstly, the Cold War threatened our safety and security after WWII. After WWII the US finally thought they had peace at last. Meanwhile across the Atlantic, the rise of the â€Å"Iron Curtain† was underway. The Iron Curtain is defined as, â€Å"the ideological conflict and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.† (â€Å"†) Communist Russia continued to gain powerShow MoreRelatedA Comparison of World War I and World War II Essay examples527 Words   |  3 PagesA Comparison of World War I and World War II World War I and World War II, while started by much of the same worldwide tensions, had drastically different results because of the much more destructive nature of World War II. Both world wars were started, ultimately, by nationalismRead MoreEurope s Influence On Western Europe1355 Words   |  6 PagesWorld Wars, shared the same history. In another perspective, it was also sometimes referring to a region where countries shared the same value: capitalism and democracy. Throughout the history, because of difference events, the position of Western Europe in the world has also changed. Before 1914, due to the rapid development of the Enlightenment ideas and the industrialization in Britain and France, the world major powers centrally seated in Western Europe. However, as the Western European countriesRead MoreCauses of First World War Essay940 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction The First World War started in 1914 and lasted for four years to end in 1918 when Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman empires were defeated (Havers 7). There have been a number of causes identified to have led to the war but most of them are not as straightforward as many would think. In essence, the root causes of the war are deeper than most abstract reasons many authors have identified in the past. However, this does not mean that there was no trail of events which directlyRead MoreThe Colonization Of Europeans Into The North America1555 Words   |  7 PagesNew World. The colonization of Europeans into the North America had considerable impacts on the Native American lives. European empire at the time, such as the French, England and Spanish empires, often fought against each other for power and control. After the European tried to colonized, the Native American suddenly found themselves dealing with European power politics. The arrival of Europeans into the New World meant new political relationships for both the European and the Native Americans. EachRead MoreDefensive Foreign Policies865 Words   |  4 Pagesforeign policy was primarily acts of neutrality and refusal to be involved with European affairs that came out of a defensive reaction to perceived threats from Europe. Two of these policies in include Washington’s Proclamation of Neutrality and the Monroe Doctrine. Both of these policies expressed the neutrality of the United States in European affairs and helped the new country to develop without the constant threat of war. President George Washington issued the Proclamation of Neutrality in 1793Read MoreWas the Outbreak of General War in 1914 Inevitable After the Assassination of Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand?1705 Words   |  7 Pagesof general war in 1914 inevitable after the assassination of Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand? Various different factors led to the outbreak of the first World War- a war which incorporated all human, economic and military resources available to achieve total victory over the enemy. Roughly, the causes can be classified into long term (Franco-Prussian War, Imperialism, Alliance System, Anglo- German Naval Arms Race, etc.), short term (Morrocan Crisis, Agadir Crisis, Bosnian Crisis, Balkan Wars) and theRead MoreHow Isolationism Is A Part Of American Policy1602 Words   |  7 PagesAddress in 1796 and lasting to the end of World War II. Factors like thousands of miles of sea between the US and Europe, fear of entangling alliances and a desire to remain autonomous contributed to the overall isolationist sentiment of many Americans. In addition, nativist sentiment has been present throughout American history as a product of isolationism and, among other factors, wage depression and fear of criminal behavior. During World War I, European countries were not only fighting with each otherRead MoreThe Greatest Single Cause Of The War Essay1741 Words   |  7 Pages‘The greatest single cause of the war was the system of secret alliances which developed.’ How far do you agree with this interpretation on what caused World War One. The first world war between the triple entente and the triple alliance is said to be the first modern war. A previously unseen number of human lives were lost on both sides and because of this when the war ended it came to be known as ‘the war to end all wars’ — as said by the former president of the United States Woodrow Wilson.Read MoreWas World War 1 Inevitable?1737 Words   |  7 PagesThe First World War has established an unforgettable memoir in the history books. World War 1 was a massacre of human life and an important event that determined the present state of the modern world. Yes, World War 1 was inevitable. The foundation of the causes of World War 1 can be traced back to several factors that were building up international tension to the ultimate result of war. In the 1900s, the European countries were extremely competitive in extending their influence around the worldRead MoreEssay on 1890 Europe As An Area of Growing Tension1326 Words   |  6 Pag esAlliance, through wars and turbulence in Europe the eventual outcome was the outbreak of the first world war. The western powers expanded colonies. However, national rivalries gradually grew and alliance camps emerged. Economic competition and arms race also became intense. The Balkans became a hotpot of western intervention, as the Ottoman Empire declined. Finally war broke out in 1914, a war which was unexpectedly disastrous and destructive in scale. The war was caused by

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Impact of the Great Depression on Black Americans Essay

The Impact of the Great Depression on Black Americans The stock market crash of October 1929 was the prelude to the Great Depression. It was a time of hardship and sorrow for many people. American morale was low, and money and food were scarce. Poverty and despair, however, were not foreign to the Black Americans; poverty had been common to them since their days of captivity. To many Black Americans who lived in the south, it was the return of old times. Sharecroppers and farm workers always lived in the midst of strife; they were never able to make a decent living. The boll weevil, soil erosion, and foreign competition had destroyed the cotton crop in the early Twenties. Life was difficult. No profits were being made, and†¦show more content†¦Americans roamed the streets searching for shelter in municipal lodging houses or Hoovervilles; some lived in railroad boxcars or constructed tents in vacant lots. When Franklin Roosevelt came to office in 1933, he emphasized relief, recovery, and reform through a program called the New Deal, but he had no plan to combat racial bias in the allotment of federal funds. Many Black Americans were unsure how much government help they would receive through this new program; the amount of relief that blacks received depended heavily upon the bias of the individual who headed each program. The Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) was designed to raise agricultural prices by paying farmers to cut production. Landowners were given this money and expected to distribute it among their tenants and sharecroppers; however, landowners rarely gave this money to their black workers. These black workers did not accuse their landowners of witholding money because they feared losing their jobs. Black Americans were also hurt through the National Recovery dministration (NRA). The NRA was formed to establish minimum wages for all workers, but these wages tend ed to hurt blacks, especially in the South with the enforcement of Black Codes. Because wages were equal for blacks and whites, many owners fired blacks to replace them with white workers. The higher wages enforced by the NRA caused prices to rise, but blacks often did notShow MoreRelatedHow did the events of the 1930’s impact African Americans prospects?809 Words   |  4 Pages1930’s impact African Americans prospects? Charlie Wilson The 1930’s was a time of great struggle in the USA. The New York stock market crashed in 1929 and triggered a spiral of economic depression, which hit African Americans hard. The Great Depression had a huge impact on African Americans. The Great Depression of the 1930s was catastrophic for all workers. But as usual, African Americans suffered worse, pushed out of unskilled jobs previously scorned by whites before the depression. AfricanRead MoreAnalysis Of Curley s Of Mice And Men 949 Words   |  4 Pages Crooks in Of Mice and Men Of Mice and Men took place during the Great Depression where the stock market crashed. Crooks lives by himself because he is the only black man on the ranch, feeling left out Crooks throws himself into reading books. Crooks longing to be a part of civilization, but because of the black and whites rules Crooks can’t be part the boy’s interaction. His American Dream is to be free and be able to join the man, that why he wanted to have his only farmRead MoreNational And International Level Events1100 Words   |  5 Pageseconomically through the depression and multiple wars and socially through the removal of the Japanese and the increased migration of African Americans. All together these factors shaped and molded the Pacific Northwest to create what it is today. National and international events had a major impact on the economy of the Pacific Northwest. During the 20th century there took place a large economic downturn in the industrial world, and countless people went unemployed. Called the Great Depression, it impactedRead MoreThe Black Renaissance And The Great Depression971 Words   |  4 Pageshistory African Americans have not had it easy. Blacks in America have had a long struggle to gain equality and freedom, which still exists to this day. The years 1917 to 1945 were particularly tough for African Americans. Racial discrimination was at a high and segregation laws enforced the idea that blacks were inferior to the whites. African Americans desired to escape the unfair treatment and obtain equal rights, but found themselves stuck. The two World Wars drew African Americans North in searchRead More America During WWII Essay1616 Words   |  7 PagesRoosevelt marks the address to congress concerning one of the most impacting events i n the history of the United States: the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Twentieth century American history was filled with monumental events. From the assassination of William McKinley and subsequent presidency of Theodore Roosevelt, to Black Thursday in 1929, to the assassination of John F. Kennedy in 1963 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965; numerous events throughout the last century helped mold the landscape ofRead MoreOf Mice And Men By John Steinbeck1150 Words   |  5 PagesSteinbeck in 1937 is a novel that juxtaposes hope and dreams against hardships and perseverance. Readers are positioned to accept the unattainability of the American dream during the great depression. The statement â€Å"...every damn one of ‘em’s got a little piece of land in his head. And never a God damn one of ‘em ever gets it† (Pg.73) is plausible to a great extent, exemplified through the failure of several characters hoping in achieving their own dreams. This is mainly emph asised with George and Lennie’sRead MoreMarch 4, 1929. Americans Appeared Shine Brightly When Herbert1326 Words   |  6 PagesMarch 4, 1929. Americans appeared shine brightly when herbert Hoover was elected President. October 24, 1929, at the same year happened, the longest and deepest depression of United States, the Great Depression. Known as Black days, October 24 and October 26 it was the collapse for this depression, 16 million stocks were traded, by any price. Banks were calling for loan, Dow Jones fells 23%, $30 billion in stock were â€Å"disappeared†, unemployment rate is higher than 24%. Smoot-Hawley tariff   Act, NewRead MoreEssay on Americas Dark Period of the Great Depression981 Words   |  4 PagesThe Great Depression is one of the darkest periods in America’s history. It was a time of despair for all Americans. The Great Depression was caused by various reasons. It also had many effects which left an impact on America still up to this day. A t that time, there was no abundance of anything: not jobs, not food, and certainly not an abundance of money, but there was surely an abundance of sadness. America had no hope since the money was a thin, green line. The Great Depression impacted the economyRead MoreRichard Wright And The Harlem Renaissance752 Words   |  4 Pagesof African American culture and showed the unaddressed problems among the black community. During that time, Richard Wright made a name for himself, writing books based on the racism that the black community faced and communism like Black Boy and Native Son. The Harlem Renaissance was a direct influence on Wrights work because he wrote about what was going on at that time. More specifically, Black Boy was written off of Wright’s childhood struggles and what it was like to be a black kid in theRead MoreHoover And Roosevelt s Actions During The Aftermath Of The Crash Of 1929792 Words   |  4 Pageswith the economic stagnation, social hardship and p sychological impact of the depression? What needed to be fixed and which approach proved more successful? In your essay you should address not only the underlying economic and social problems that both administrations had to deal with and the various corrective measures they adopted, but also the underlying philosophical approaches of Hoover and Roosevelt and their supporters. The Great Crash also known as Stock market crash of 1929, happened in 1929

Statistics 2 Free Essays

1. How large a sample was needed for the Voss et al. (2004) study according to the power analysis? Was this the minimum sample size needed for the study or did the researchers allow for sample mortality? Answer: After conducting a power analysis, the researchers planned a sample size of 96 patients for their study. We will write a custom essay sample on Statistics 2 or any similar topic only for you Order Now The 96 subjects allowed for 30 subjects per group for the three study groups plus 6 subjects for sample mortality or attrition. 2. What was the sample size for the Voss et al. (2004) study? Was this sample size adequate for this study? Provide a rationale for your answer. Answer: The sample size for this study was N = 62. The power analysis indicated that a sample of 96 was needed and the 62 subjects in the sample were less than was projected by the power analysis. However, preliminary analyses after the 62 patients were enrolled revealed significant groups differences. Since significant group differences were found, then the sample size was adequate and no Type II error occurred of saying the groups were not significantly different when they were. 3. What effect size was used in conducting the power analysis for this study? What effect size was found during data analysis and how did this effect the sample size needed for this study? Answer: A moderate effect size of 0. 33 was used to conduct the power analysis. During data analysis, the researchers indicated that significant group differences and large effect sizes were found for anxiety, pain sensation, and pain distress. Since a large effect size was found during data analysis, the sample size of 62 was adequate to detect significant group differences versus the 96 projected in the power analysis. The larger the effect size, the smaller the sample needed to detect group differences. 4. What power was used to conduct the power analysis in the Voss et al. (2004) study? What amount of error exists with this power level? Provide a rationale for your answer. Answer: The researchers set the power at the standard 0. 8 or 80%. This is considered the minimum acceptable power to use in conducting a study. When power is set at 80%, then the possible error is 0. 0 or 20% or 100% – 80% = 20%. 5. If researchers set the power at 90% to conduct their power analysis, would there be less or more chance of a Type II error, than setting the power at 80%? Provide a rationale for your answer. Answer: If the researchers set the power at 90%, there is less of a chance for a Type II error than if they set the power at 80%. At a power of 90%, the chance of error is 10% or 100% – 90% = 10%. A power of 80% has a 20% chance or error or 100% – 80% = 20%. How to cite Statistics 2, Essay examples

Challenges in Cyber Security for Business †

Question: Discuss about the Challenges in Cyber Security for Business. Answer: Introduction My project report is based on the topic Challenges in Cyber Security for Business. I have noticed that the cyber security is a common problem that is present worldwide and with the rapid use of the technology this have become a rising problem. In order to cope up with the different problems of the cyber security, there are many challenges that has to be faced. I have seen that the data protection and the privacy are some of the common concerns of any organization as they are easily leaked and misused and can easily lead to several drastic consequences. However, I have noticed that nowadays the amount of money which is spend on the operations and the data security is primarily from the intruders. Most of the organizations now a days are seen to spent on their online and data maintenance platforms. I have understood that they need to take up steps so that they can easily save their own information and data of their customers. Some of the examples that can be cited is of the innocent cu stomers becoming a part of their fraudulent charges without having any clue or even knowledge of it. In this research proposal I have made a focus on the challenges and the incidents that the customers and the company might face in order to maintain their cyber security in the business area. I have also made sure to follow the different procedures that I have prepared in the report that includes the possible techniques that has to be conducted. Evaluation of effectiveness I have made the project scope in a wider aspect and this is solely because to address the cyber security in the business world that needs to be focused at an industrial level globally. These concepts will also be discussed by me along with addressing the challenges. I have widened the scope and made a horizon of their knowledge and that is how the business can be made more secure and safer. It can be said that the technology nowadays is an integral part of the business operations that can easily pose for the threats in the business operations. I have realized that there is a need to tackle the threats so that it becomes competent in the business environment. Objectives In this report, the key objectives that I have identified is that the cyber security challenges are prevalent in the business field and the method needs to be addressed is also mentioned. I have seen that all of these challenges are faced at a global level. I have not only limited the project to the different challenging discussions on the cyber security but also to the alternative discussions that is available in meeting the discussed challenges. My aim on this project is to find out the different solutions to the problems that can be faced by the organizations in this present situation of the business environment. Evaluation In this section, I have tried to provide a data information section on the topic Challenges in Cyber Security for Business. I have realized that the cyber security is one of the prime challenges in the business organization in the current competitive environment. This is primarily because the technology is growing at a rapid pace and almost all the organizations are trying their level best to manage with their technological devices like the laptops, computers, mobiles, internet and the rest that has led more challenges and attacks in the business. The wide range of the cyber attacks that has been faced and experienced in the last few years has been mentioned by me in this report and its possible cures using the improvisations of the security mechanism. In other words, it can be stated that the cyber security is a digital informational property that is used by the companies so that it can easily be protected. This has eventually become one of the serious management issues. There are certain challenges in the in the world of the cyber security that has made an increased growth in the data from the different business systems. As per Best, Endert and Kidwell (2014), it can be said that the technology has become an essence in the business. It brings development and growth into the system of the business just like two aspects in the business technology world, that has some of the side effects. I have found out some of the affects in the security and the privacy of the data. The cyber security hence is termed as an important factor that has the ability to face the challenges that may initially lack funding from the government. I have realized that cybercrime damages the whole data that is prevalent in the business. Hence if the employees become more trained it will be easier to manage the cyber security issues along with arousal of the ethical issue. I have evidenced it that the employees who used to be once the ethical hackers have now turned into unethical hackers after they leave their organization. In this 21st century, the cyber security is developing at a rapid pace. There are too many challenges as well that might be because of the productivity of the business that is quite degrading. In this research, I have invested a lot of time in understanding how to maintain the security of their information and business data. The factors that are the leading threats and challenges has also been explained. Some of the factors like the lack of the collaboration and leadership, knowledge and laws about the cybercrime are all set ups for an effective control in the business security process. Learning plan My primary research questions deal with: What are the major cyber security challenges in the business? My secondary question deals with: How the cyber security challenges can be mitigated? In this research methodology, I have used approaches and methods that is quite relevant to the given topic. I have used the mixed method that includes both the qualitative and the quantitative data in using and collecting it. This data has helped me in gathering the answers of the questions in this research process. The qualitative data is based on the gatherings of the opinions of the people and their secondary resources that is a quantitative data. I have collected the primary and the secondary data from the different sources. I have collected the primary data through a questionnaire survey of 10 people who works in an IT firm and were asked about the safety and the cyber security measures in their organization. In case of the secondary data, I have collected this from the journals, books and the web sources. I have gathered a sample from a size of 10 respondents. I have saved strong passwords so that none can modify and misuse the collected data and keep it as confidential. The only limitations that was faced by me while conducting this research is the shortage of the time provided. The time was so shortly provided that the data could not be analyzed and collected in a proper way. I have created a time schedule or an action plan so that the research can be easily completed within the time period provided. I have provided the Grantt chart that is based on the geographical representation of the action plan of the research so that it may be competed at a perfect time. Conclusion In todays world, the cyber security is an essential part of the business that is used to maintain the secrecy and the privacy of the data and I have realized that it is an integral part of the competition in the industry. The challenges that I have faced in securing the data is the shortage of time. The other different challenges that can be used to mitigate the process of security is through proper training of the employees. The main aim is to focus on the integration of the data and adoption of the measures that will help in the security challenges. References Best, D.M., Endert, A. and Kidwell, D., 2014, November. 7 key challenges for visualization in cyber network defense. InProceedings of the Eleventh Workshop on Visualization for Cyber Security(pp. 33-40). ACM. Elmaghraby, A.S. and Losavio, M.M., 2014. Cyber security challenges in Smart Cities: Safety, security and privacy.Journal of advanced research,5(4), pp.491-497. Gunes, V., Peter, S., Givargis, T. and Vahid, F., 2014. A survey on concepts, applications, and challenges in cyber-physical systems.TIIS,8(12), pp.4242-4268. He, H., Maple, C., Watson, T., Tiwari, A., Mehnen, J., Jin, Y. and Gabrys, B., 2016, July. The security challenges in the IoT enabled cyber-physical systems and opportunities for evolutionary computing other computational intelligence. InEvolutionary Computation (CEC), 2016 IEEE Congress on(pp. 1015-1021). IEEE. Kumar, V.A., Pandey, K.K. and Punia, D.K., 2014. Cyber security threats in the power sector: Need for a domain specific regulatory framework in India.Energy Policy,65, pp.126-133. Reddy, G.N. and Reddy, G.J., 2014. A Study of Cyber Security Challenges and its emerging trends on latest technologies.arXiv preprint arXiv:1402.1842. Robert, M. and Directorate, I.C., 2015. ISR. Sadeghi, A.R., Wachsmann, C. and Waidner, M., 2015, June. Security and privacy challenges in industrial internet of things. InDesign Automation Conference (DAC), 2015 52nd ACM/EDAC/IEEE(pp. 1-6). IEEE. Scully, T., 2014. The cyber security threat stops in the boardroom.Journal of business continuity emergency planning,7(2), pp.138-148. Thuraisingham, B., Kantarcioglu, M., Hamlen, K., Khan, L., Finin, T., Joshi, A., Oates, T. and Bertino, E., 2016, July. A Data Driven Approach for the Science of Cyber Security: Challenges and Directions. InInformation Reuse and Integration (IRI), 2016 IEEE 17th International Conference on(pp. 1-10). IEEE. Tisdale, S.M., 2015. CYBERSECURITY: CHALLENGES FROM A SYSTEMS, COMPLEXITY, KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE PERSPECTIVE.Issues in Information Systems,16(3). Van den Berg, J., Van Zoggel, J., Snels, M., Van Leeuwen, M., Boeke, S., van de Koppen, L., Van der Lubbe, J., Van den Berg, B. and De Bos, T., 2014. On (the Emergence of) Cyber Security Science and its Challenges for Cyber Security Education. InProceedings of the NATO IST-122 Cyber Security Science and Engineering Symposium(pp. 13-14).

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Odysseus Characterization Paper free essay sample

In The Odyssey, the protagonist is a leader named Odysseus who goes on a journey with his crew to get back home to Ithaka from Troy, after the trojan war. In the epic poem, The Odyssey, the poet Homer, suggests that Odysseus is a superior leader which is revealed by Odysseuss, bravery, intelligence, and perseverance. Odysseuss bravery sets himself apart from other leaders. Odysseus has to display an example to his crew by inspiring them with his fearlessness. Odysseus illustrates his grit when he forces his crew to carry on with going to the underworld: â€Å"We must go/ to the cold homes of death and pale Persephone/ to hear Teiresias tell of time to come/ They felt so stricken, upon hearing this, / they sat down wailing loud, and tore their hair/But nothing came of giving way to grief/ Down to the shore the ship at last we went. We will write a custom essay sample on Odysseus Characterization Paper or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page † Homer 10. 623-625 . Odysseus showcases his hardiness when his crew does not want to go to the Underworld, but Odysseus presses on, while knowing that lost and terrifying souls await him. Odysseus’s fortitude spreads throughout his crew, if he is scared, his followers also feel fear. Without courage the team can not get home to Ithaka. In order to achieve his goal, the Odysseus needs to speak with Teiresias. Also Odysseus displays his fearlessness when he is trapped in the Kyklopss cave: â€Å"’Now, by the gods, I drove my big hand spike/ deep in the embers, charring it again,/ and cheered my men along with battle talk/ to keep their courage up: no quitting now/†(Homer 9. 06-409) . Odysseus exhibited superb pluck when executing his plan of blinding the Kyklops Had Odysseus not led his people by bravely heading the attack, his words would have meant nothing to the crew. For a leader to be â€Å"brave† he does not only have to be able do the impossible by himself, but he must also influence the people around him to continue on by his side. To be an epic leader intelligence is necessary. One can be brave, but without wit his courage may result in a poor decision. Odysseus uses his intellect to strategically send only three members of his crew to explore the land of the lotuss: â€Å"then I sent two picked men and a runner to learn what race of men that land sustained† (Homer 9. 96-97). Odysseus knows that is the inhabitants are hostile he can lose his entire team, but this way he potentially risks only a fraction of his men. Decisions made by a leader without acuity are futile and may prove harmful to his constituents. Furthermore, Odysseus exemplifies his intelligence when instead of mindlessly slaughtering the suitors, he creates a plan to overcome the fact that he is outnumbered: â€Å"’Put aside two broadswords and two spears/ for our own to use, two oxhide shields nearby/ when we go into action. Pallas Athena, and Zeus All Provident will see you through, bemusing our young friends† (Homer 16. 352-358). Odysseus comes up with the plan to prepare weaponry for himself to ensure he had enough to destroy the suitors, while at the same time making sure the suitors do not acquire arms themselves. Although Odysseus wants to annihilate the suitors he keeps his motives in sight and manages to formulate the plan. The analytical ability to act in a difficult situation is essential for a good leader because the environment is ever changing and sometimes rapid decisions must be made. In the end Odysseuss scheme succeeds to provide arms for him and his accomplices, but the suitors are still able to gain weapons. Without perspicacity strength and bravery are nothing. What sets Odysseus apart from other Greek heroes is that he prefers to fight with his brain rather than with his brawn. Odysseuss reason also helps him make up for the fact that unlike the other Greek heroes, he does not have immortality. Lastly, Odysseuss perseverance made it possible for him to finally make it home to Ithaka, his persistence effects his crew which looks up to him for guidance. When Odysseus arrives home he describes what he had to endure to his wife Penelope: â€Å"’My lady, / what ordeals have we not endured! Here, waiting/ you had your grief, while my return dragged out-/ my hard adventures, pitting myself against/ the god’s will†¦ But now our life resumes: we’ve come together to our longed-for-bed†Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ (Homer 23. 394-400). Both Odysseus and his wife have to cope with many challenges throughout Odysseuss 20 year absence. Even after his crew perished and he is left shipless, Odysseus does not give up. Likewise, when Odysseus has to sacrifice his men in a fight against Skylla, he grieves for his loss but he understands that he must push on : â€Å"Now I let go with hands and feet, plunging/ straight into the foam beside the timbers, /pulled astride, /and rowed hard with my hands/ to pass by Skylla†Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ (Homer 9. 564-568). Odysseus is forced overboard into the raging ocean, but he continues to hope. After losing his crew and his ship Odysseus never sets the sight of his goal to reach home. If Odysseus gives up when the gods throw everything they have at him, his quest is impossible. Instead of cowering from his fears, Odysseus attacks them head on, thus proving he will not surrender to challenges until his final destination is reached. Due to his bravery, his intelligence, and his perseverance, Odysseus is depicted as a phenomenal leader in the epic poem The Odyssey. Odysseuss courage in the Kyklopss cave makes it possible for him and his crew to escape the beast. Without Odysseuss acumen it would be impossible for him to surpass the many suitors that ravaged his home. Most importantly, Odysseus carries on when all odds are against him. Without his dedication Odysseus would not be able to bypass the formidable monsters that block his path back home. Many modern leaders can take Odysseuss example; for instance, modern day politicians need to endure when tackling challenges that at times may seem unbeatable. The only way to try to make the world a better place is to solve monumental problems that affect out everyday lives, such as unemployment and conservation of our environment. We, the human race as a whole, are Odysseus and we need to challenge the Polyphemus, which the modern problems of our world.